Internet wired and mobile access revenue consists of fees paid by consumers to Internet service providers and to wireless carriers for Internet access via mobile devices, whether provided as a stand-alone service or as part of a service bundle where the Internet component is estimated. Figures do not include the purchase of content such as music, or spending on entertainment content downloaded over the Internet or through mobile phones, which is included in the respective content chapters. Access fees for phones provided by corporations for workers to access the corporate network are not included. Internet access is a key driver of entertainment and media spending in most segments.
Internet advertising: wired and mobile consists of spending by advertisers on paid search, display, classified, video and other online formats; and advertising delivered to mobile phones via formats designed for mobile handset screens.
The television distribution market consists of revenues generated by distributors of television programming to viewers. It includes spending by consumers on subscriptions to basic and premium channels accessed from cable operators, satellite providers, telephone companies, and other multichannel distributors; video-on-demand (VOD); and television distributed to mobile phones on a subscription basis. In North America, EMEA (Europe, Middle East, Africa), and Asia Pacific it also includes pay-per-view. In EMEA and Asia Pacific, public TV license fees are also included.
The television advertising market consists of advertiser spending on both terrestrial and multichannel television, advertising on TV Web sites and on programs streamed from TV Web sites, and mobile TV advertising.
Net television advertising figures - consisting of spending minus agency commissions and discounts - are tracked in EMEA (Europe, Middle East, Africa), Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Canada. Advertising in the US and Russia is reported with agency commissions included, as is customary.
Multichannel advertising refers to advertising on networks that are accessed by viewers via cable (analog or digital), satellite, digital terrestrial television (DTT), or other means but that are not otherwise available without these services. Terrestrial advertising consists of advertising that is generated by free-to-air broadcast networks and that can be received through an ordinary television receiver, even if viewers can also receive such networks through a cable, satellite, or DTT service.
The recorded music market consists of consumer spending on physical formats - albums, single sound recordings, and music videos - as well as digital distribution. Digital distribution consists of music distributed to mobile phones and of music downloaded from the Internet through licensed services or app stores. Revenues from streaming services financed by subscriptions or advertising also are included. The recorded music market does not include subscription fees paid by to satellite radio providers. Also not included are music publishing, live performance, and merchandising revenues, which have become significant components of the market. Spending is measured at retail, which can be substantially higher than the wholesale or trade value revenues that are often reported.
The filmed entertainment market consists of consumer spending at the box office for theatrical motion pictures, plus spending on rentals of videos at video stores and other retail outlets (the in-store rental market) and the purchase of home video products in retail outlets and through online stores (the sell-through market). It also includes online film rental subscription services, such as those in which physical DVDs are delivered via overnight mail, and streaming services whereby films are downloaded via a broadband Internet connection. The figures do not include either music videos (which are counted in the "Recorded music" chapter) or video-on-demand, pay-per-view, or movie distribution by cable, satellite, or telephone companies (which are covered in the "TV subscriptions and license fees" chapter). Also excluded are "ancillary" revenues earned by cinemas, such as cinema advertising and sales of beverages and refreshments.
The video game market consists of consumer spending on console games (including handheld games), personal computer games, online games, and wireless games as well as video game advertising. The category excludes spending on the hardware and accessories used for playing the games. Retail purchases of a game are included in either the PC or console game categories. The online games category includes microtransactions, which are purchases of accessories and additional game content by players that enhance the gaming experience. If those games are then played online for a subscription fee, the subscription fee is counted in the online game category.
The consumer magazine publishing market consists of spending by advertisers in consumer print magazines and on magazine Web sites and magazine mobile sites. Consumer magazine publishing includes spending by readers to purchase magazines via subscriptions or at retail outlets as well as paid online subscriptions. Magazines published under contract, known as customer magazines or custom publishing, also are included under the print advertising component. Figures do not include licensing or other ancillary revenues. Trade magazines are covered in the "Business-to-business publishing" chapter.
The newspaper publishing market consists of (1) spending on daily print newspapers by advertisers and readers and (2) advertising on newspaper Web sites and mobile phone sites. Spending by readers includes both newsstand purchases and subscriptions as well as payments for newspapers delivered to mobile devices and fees to access online content. Weekend editions issued by publishers of daily papers are included in the daily paper totals, as is advertising in free daily newspapers. However, free weeklies and other weekly papers are not included.
The radio market consists of advertiser spending on radio stations and radio networks, and satellite-delivered radio subscriptions in the United States and Canada. Satellite radio in the United States also includes advertising. The United States also includes Internet radio advertising. In EMEA (Europe, Middle East, Africa) and Asia Pacific the market includes public radio license fees. Advertising spending is tracked in EMEA, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Canada, net of agency commissions. Advertising in the U.S. and Russia is customarily reported as gross spending, which is how it is reflected in our analysis.
The out-of-home (OOH) advertising market consists of advertiser spending on out-of-home media such as billboards, street furniture (bus shelters, kiosks, etc.), transit displays (bus sides, on-train print, taxi toppers, etc), sports arena displays, 'captive' ad networks (in venues such as elevators) and other formats. Advertising spending is tracked in EMEA, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Canada, net of agency commissions. Advertising in the U.S. and Russia is customarily reported as gross spending, which is how it is reflected in our analysis.
The consumer and educational book publishing market consists of retail spending by consumers on consumer books; spending by schools, government agencies, and students on elementary, high school, and college textbooks, including post-graduate textbooks; and spending on books in electronic formats, or 'electronic books.' Spending includes library and institutional subscriptions to electronic book databases. Print sales include audio books. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software, or testing materials.
Professional books are covered in the "Business-to-business publishing" chapter.
The business-to-business publishing market consists of spending on business information, print and online directory advertising, which includes Yellow Pages, print advertising in trade magazines, advertising on trade magazine Web sites, and trade magazine circulation spending, which includes spending on online content. It also includes spending on print and electronic professional books. Exhibitions and conferences are not included. Business information is an industry increasingly characterized by multinational suppliers selling to multinational buyers. Figures reflect spending by buyers of information in the various countries.
We classify business information into financial, marketing, and industry information categories.
- Financial information involves securities, economic, and credit data.
- Marketing information is used to sell products or services and to monitor sales and includes survey research, mailing lists, and demographic databases.
- Industry information consists of data and content, such as market share information and competitive intelligence, focused on specific industry categories such as accounting, energy, health care, law, manufacturing, real estate, technology, telecommunications, energy, manufacturing, law, real estate, accounting, and healthcare.